Chapter #15 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. Why are cumulus clouds normally white? Get solution

1qt. Why is it often difficult to see the road while driving on a foggy night with your high beam lights on? Get solution

2qr. Why do the undersides of building cumulus clouds frequently change color from white to dark gray or even black? Get solution

2qt. Explain why the notion that “the sky is blue because of reflected light from the oceans” is false. Get solution

3qr. Explain why the sky is blue during the day and black at night. Get solution

3qt. Why does smoke rising from a cigarette appear blue, yet appears white when blown from the mouth? Get solution

4qr. What can make a setting (or rising) sun appear red? Get solution

4qt. If there were no atmosphere surrounding the earth, what color would the sky be at sunrise? At sunset? What color would the sun be at noon? At sunrise? At sunset? Get solution

5qr. If the earth had no atmosphere, what would be the color of the daytime sky? Get solution

5qt. Explain why, on a cloudless day, the sky will usually appear milky white before it rains and a deeper blue after it rains. Get solution

6qr. Explain why the horizon sky appears white on a hazy day. Get solution

6qt. Why are rainbows seldom observed at noon? Get solution

7qr. What process (refraction or scattering) produces crepuscular rays? Get solution

7qt. During the day, clouds are white and the sky is blue. Why then, during a full moon, do cumulus clouds appear faintly white, while the sky does not appear blue? Get solution

8qr. Why do stars “twinkle”? Get solution

8qt. During Ernest Shackleton’s last expedition to Antarctica, on May 8, 1915, seven days after the sun had set for the winter, he saw the sun reappear. Explain how this event—called the Novaya Zemlya effect—can occur. Get solution

9qr. How does refraction of light differ from reflection of light? Get solution

9qt. Choose a 3-day period in which to observe the sky 5 times each day. Record in a notebook the number of times you see halos, crepuscular rays, coronas, cloud iridescence, sundogs, rainbows, and other phenomena. Get solution

10qr. How long does twilight last on the moon? (Hint: The moon has no atmosphere.) Get solution

11qr. At what time of day would you expect to observe the green flash? Get solution

12qr. How does light bend as it enters a more-dense substance at an angle? How does it bend upon leaving the more-dense substance? Make a sketch to illustrate your answer. Get solution

13qr. On a clear, dry, warm day, why do dark road surfaces frequently appear wet? Get solution

14qr. What atmospheric conditions are necessary for an inferior mirage? A superior mirage? Get solution

15qr. (a) Describe how a halo forms. (b) How is the formation of a halo different from that of a sundog? Get solution

16qr. Would you expect to see a ringed halo if the sky contains a few wispy cirrus clouds? Explain. Get solution

17qr. What process is believed to be mainly responsible for the formation of sun pillars: refraction, reflection, or scattering? Get solution

18qr. Explain why this rhyme makes sense: Rainbow in the morning, joggers take warning. Rainbow at night (evening), jogger’s delight. Get solution

19qr. Why can a rainbow only be observed if the sun is at the observer’s back? Get solution

20qr. Why are secondary rainbows much dimmer than primary rainbows? Get solution

21qr. How would you distinguish a corona from a halo? Get solution

22qr. What process is primarily responsible for the formation of cloud iridescence—reflection, refraction, or diffraction of light? Get solution

Chapter #14 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. What are some of the main sources of air pollution? Get solution

1qt. Would you expect a fumigation-type smoke plume on a warm, sunny afternoon? Explain. Get solution

2qr. How do primary air pollutants differ from secondary air pollutants? Get solution

2qt. Give a few reasons why, in industrial areas, nighttime pollution levels might be higher than daytime levels. Get solution

3qr. List a few of the substances that fall under the category of particulate matter. Get solution

3qt. Explain this apparent paradox: High levels of tropospheric (ground-level) ozone are “bad” and we try to reduce them, whereas high levels of stratospheric ozone are “good” and we try to maintain them. Get solution

4qr. How does PM-10 particulate matter differ from that called PM-2.5? Which poses the greatest risk to human health? Get solution

4qt. A large industrial smokestack located within an urban area emits vast quantities of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Following criticism from local residents that emissions from the stack are contributing to poor air quality in the area, the management raises the height of the stack from 10 m (33 ft) to 100 m (330 ft). Will this increase in stack height change any of the existing air quality problems? Will it create any new problems? Explain. Get solution

5qr. How is particulate matter removed from the atmosphere? Get solution

5qt. If the sulfuric acid and nitric acid in rainwater are capable of adversely affecting soil, trees, and fish, why doesn’t this same acid adversely affect people when they walk in the rain? Get solution

6qr. Describe the primary sources and some of the health problems associated with each of the following pollutants: (a) carbon monoxide (CO) (b) sulfur dioxide (SO2) (c) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (d) nitrogen oxides Get solution

6qt. Which do you feel is likely to be more acidic: acid rain or acid fog? Explain your reasoning. Get solution

7qr. How does London-type smog differ from Los Angeles-type smog? Get solution

7qt. Keep a log of the daily AQI readings in your area and note the pollutants listed in the index. Also, keep a record of the daily weather conditions, such as cloud cover, high temperature for the day, average wind direction and speed, etc. See if there is any relationship between these weather conditions and high AQI readings for certain pollutants. Get solution

8qr. What is photochemical smog? How does it form? What is the main component of photochemical smog? Get solution

9qr. Why is photochemical smog more prevalent during the summer and early fall than during the middle of winter? Get solution

10qr. Why is stratospheric ozone beneficial to life on earth, whereas tropospheric (ground-level) ozone is not? Get solution

11qr. If most of the ozone in the stratosphere were destroyed, what possible effects might this have on the earth’s inhabitants? Get solution

12qr. Get solution

13qr. (a) On the AQI scale, when is a pollutant considered unhealthful? (b) On the AQI scale, how would air be described if it had an AQI value of 250 for ozone? (c) What would be the general health effects with an AQI value of 250 for ozone? What precautions should a person take with this value? Get solution

14qr. Why is a light wind, rather than a strong wind, more conducive to high concentrations of air pollution? Get solution

15qr. How does atmospheric stability influence the accumulation of air pollutants near the surface? Get solution

16qr. Why is it that polluted air and inversions seem to go hand in hand? Get solution

17qr. Major air pollution episodes are mainly associated with radiation inversions or subsidence inversions. Explain why. Get solution

18qr. Give several reasons why taller smokestacks are better than shorter ones at improving the air quality in their immediate area. Get solution

19qr. How does the mixing depth normally change during the course of a day? As the mixing depth changes, how does it affect the concentration of pollution near the surface? Get solution

20qr. For least-polluting conditions, what would be the best time of day for a farmer to burn agricultural debris? Explain your reasoning. Get solution

21qr. Explain why most severe episodes of air pollution are associated with slow moving or stagnant high pressure areas. Get solution

22qr. How does topography influence the concentration of pollutants in cities such as Los Angeles and Denver? In mountainous terrain? Get solution

23qr. List the factors that can lead to a major buildup of atmospheric pollution. Get solution

24qr. What is an urban heat island? Is it more strongly developed at night or during the day? Explain. Get solution

25qr. What causes the “country breeze”? Why is it usually more developed at night than during the day? Would it be more easily developed in summer or winter? Explain. Get solution

26qr. How can pollution play a role in influencing the precipitation downwind of certain large industrial complexes? Get solution

27qr. What is acid deposition? Why is acid deposition considered a serious problem in many regions of the world? How does precipitation become acidic? Get solution

Chapter #13 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. What methods do scientists use to determine climate conditions that have occurred in the past? Get solution

1qt. Ice cores extracted from Greenland and Antarctica have yielded valuable information on climate changes during the past few hundred thousand years. What do you feel might be some of the limitations in using ice core information to evaluate past climate changes? Get solution

2qr. Explain how the changing climate influenced the formation of the Bering land bridge. Get solution

2qt. When glaciation was at a maximum (about 18,000 years ago), was global precipitation greater or less than at present? Explain your reasoning. Get solution

3qr. How does today’s average global temperature compare with the average temperature during most of the past 1000 years? Get solution

3qt. Consider the following climate change scenario. Warming global temperatures increase saturation vapor pressures over the ocean. As more water evaporates, increasing quantities of water vapor build up in the troposphere. More clouds form as the water vapor condenses. The clouds increase the albedo, resulting in decreased amounts of solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface. Is this scenario plausible? What type(s) of feedback(s) is/are involved? What type of clouds (high or low)? Get solution

4qr. What is the Younger Dryas episode? When did it occur? Get solution

4qt. Are ice ages in the Northern Hemisphere more likely when the tilt of the earth is at a maximum or a minimum? Explain. Get solution

5qr. How does a positive feedback mechanism differ from a negative feedback mechanism? Is the water vapor–greenhouse feedback considered positive or negative? Explain. Get solution

5qt. Are ice ages in the Northern Hemisphere more likely when the sun is closest to the earth during summer or during winter? Explain. Get solution

6qr. How does the theory of plate tectonics explain climate change over periods of millions of years? Get solution

6qt. Get solution

7qr. Describe the Milankovitch theory of climatic change by explaining how each of the three cycles alters the amount of solar energy reaching the earth. Get solution

7qt. Why did periods of glacial advance in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere tend to occur with colder summers, but not necessarily with colder winters? Get solution

8qr. Get solution

9qr. How do sulfate aerosols in the lower atmosphere affect surface air temperatures during the day? Get solution

10qr. Describe the scenario of nuclear winter. Get solution

11qr. Do volcanic eruptions rich in sulfur tend to warm or cool the earth’s surface? Explain. Get solution

12qr. Explain how variations in the sun’s energy output might influence global climate. Get solution

13qr. Climate models predict that increasing levels of CO2 will cause the mean global surface temperature to rise significantly by the year 2100. What other greenhouse gas must also increase in concentration in order for this condition to occur? Get solution

14qr. Describe some of the natural and human-induced radiative forcing agents and their effect on climate. Get solution

15qr. List five ways natural events can cause climate change. Get solution

16qr. List three ways human (anthropogenic) activities can cause climate change. Get solution

17qr. Describe how clouds influence the climate system. Get solution

18qr. In Fig. 13.18a, p. 419, explain why the actual rise in surface air temperature (gray line) is much greater than the projected rise in temperature due to natural forcing agents. Reference: Figure 13.18a: ... Get solution

19qr. Why do climate scientists now believe that most of the warming experienced during the last 50 years was due to increasing levels of greenhouse gases? Get solution

20qr. List some of the consequences that climate change might have on the atmosphere and its inhabitants. Get solution

21qr. Is CO2 the only greenhouse gas we should be concerned with for climate change? If not, what are the other gases? Get solution

Chapter #12 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. What factors determine the global pattern of precipitation? Get solution

1qt. Why do cities east of the Rockies, such as Denver, Colorado, get much more precipitation than cities east of the Sierra Nevada, such as Reno, Nevada? Get solution

2qr. Explain why, in North America, precipitation typically is a maximum along the West Coast in winter, a maximum on the Central Plains in summer, and fairly evenly distributed between summer and winter along the East Coast. Get solution

2qt. According to the Köppen system of climate classification, which type of climate is found in your area? Get solution

3qr. What climate information did Koppen use in classifying climates? Get solution

3qt. Los Angeles, Seattle, and Boston are all coastal cities, yet Boston has a continental rather than a marine climate. Explain why. Get solution

4qr. How did Koppen define a tropical climate? How did he define a polar climate? Get solution

4qt. Why are many structures in polar regions built on pilings? Get solution

5qr. According to Koppen’s climatic system (Fig. 12.7, pp. 376–377), what major climatic type is most abundant: (a) in North America; (b) in South America; (c) throughout the world? Reference: Figure 12.7: ... Get solution

5qt. Why are summer afternoon temperatures in a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) often higher than in a tropical wet climate (Af)? Get solution

6qr. What is the primary factor that makes a dry climate “dry”? Get solution

6qt. Why are humid subtropical climates (Cfa) found in regions bounded by 20° and 40° (N or S) latitudes, and nowhere else? Get solution

7qr. In which climatic region would each of the following be observed: tropical rainforest, xerophytes, steppe, taiga, tundra, and savanna? Get solution

7qt. In which of the following climate types is virga likely to occur most frequently: humid continental, arid desert, or polar tundra? Explain why. Get solution

8qr. What are the controlling factors (the major climatic controls) that produce the following climatic regions? (a) tropical wet and dry; (b) Mediterranean; (c) marine; (d) humid subtropical; (e) subpolar; (f) polar ice cap Get solution

8qt. As shown in Figure 12.19, p. 386, San Francisco and Sacramento, California, have similar mean annual temperatures but different annual temperature ranges. What factors control the annual temperature ranges at these two locations? Reference: Figure 12.19: ... Get solution

9qr. Why are marine climates (Cs) usually found on the west coast of continents? Get solution

9qt. Why is there a contrast in climate types on either side of the Rocky Mountains, but not on either side of the Appalachian Mountains? Get solution

10qr. Why are large annual temperature ranges characteristic of D-type climates? Get solution

10qt. Sketch graphs of annual variation of temperature and precipitation for a coastal location, and also for a location in the center of a large continent. Explain any differences in your graphs. Get solution

11qr. Why are D climates found in the Northern Hemisphere but not in the Southern Hemisphere? Get solution

11qt. On a blank map of the world, roughly outline where Köppen’s major climatic regions are located. Get solution

12qr. Explain why a tropical rainforest climate will support a tropical rainforest, while a tropical wet-and-dry climate will not. Get solution

12qt. Over the past 100 years or so the earth has warmed by more than 0.7°C (1.3°F). If this warming should continue over the next 100 years, explain how this rise in temperature might influence the boundary between C and D climates. How might the warming influence the boundary between D and E climates? Get solution

13qr. What is the primary distinction between a Cfa and a Dfa climate? Get solution

14qr. Explain how arid deserts can be found adjacent to oceans. Get solution

15qr. Why did Koppen use the 10°C (50°F) average temperature for July to distinguish between D and E climates? Get solution

16qr. What accounts for the existence of a BWk climate in the western Great Basin of North America? Get solution

17qr. Barrow, Alaska, receives a mere 11 cm (about 4.3 in.) of precipitation annually. Explain why its climate is not classified as arid or semi-arid. Get solution

18qr. Explain why subpolar climates are also known as boreal climates and taiga climates. Get solution

Chapter #11 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. What is a tropical (easterly) wave? How do these waves generally move in the Northern Hemisphere? Are showers found on the eastern or western side of the wave? Get solution

1qt. A hurricane just off the coast of northern Florida is moving northeastward, parallel to the eastern sea board. Suppose that you live in North Carolina along the coast. (a) How will the surface winds in your area change direction as the hurricane’s center passes due east of you? Illustrate your answer by making a sketch of the hurricane’s movement and the wind flow around it. (b) If the hurricane passes east of you, the strongest winds would most likely be blowing from which direction? Explain your answer. (Assume that the storm does not weaken as it moves northeastward.) (c) The lowest sea-level pressure would most likely occur with which wind direction? Explain. Get solution

2qr. Why are streamlines, rather than isobars, used on surface weather maps in the tropics? Get solution

2qt. Get solution

3qr. What is the name given to a hurricane-like storm that forms over the western North Pacific Ocean? Get solution

3qt. Give several reasons how a hurricane that once began to weaken can strengthen again. Get solution

4qr. Describe the horizontal and vertical structure of a hurricane. Get solution

4qt. Why are North Atlantic hurricanes more apt to form in October than in May? Get solution

5qr. Why are skies often clear or partly cloudy in a hurricane’s eye? Get solution

5qt. Explain why the ocean surface water temperature is usually cooler after the passage of a hurricane. (Hint: The answer is not because the hurricane extracts heat from the water.) Get solution

6qr. What conditions at the surface and aloft are necessary for hurricane development? Get solution

6qt. Suppose this year five tropical storms develop into full-fledged hurricanes over the North Atlantic Ocean. Would the name of the third hurricane begin with the letter C? Explain. Get solution

7qr. List three “triggers” that help in the initial stage of hurricane development. Get solution

7qt. You are in Darwin, Australia (on the north shore), and a hurricane approaches from the north. Where would the highest storm surge be, to the east or west? Explain. Get solution

8qr. (a) Hurricanes are sometimes described as a heat en gine. What is the “fuel” that drives the hurricane? (b) What determines the maximum strength (the highest winds) that the storm can achieve? Get solution

9qr. Would it be possible for a hurricane to form over land? Explain. Get solution

10qr. If a hurricane is moving westward at 10 knots, will the strongest winds be on its northern or southern side? Explain. If the same hurricane turns northward, will the strongest winds be on its eastern or western side? Get solution

11qr. What factors tend to weaken hurricanes? Get solution

12qr. Distinguish among a tropical depression, a tropical storm, and a hurricane. Get solution

13qr. In what ways is a hurricane different from a mid-latitude cyclone? In what ways are these two systems similar? Get solution

14qr. Why do most hurricanes move westward over tropical waters? Get solution

15qr. If the high winds of a hurricane are not responsible for inflicting the most damage, what is? Get solution

16qr. Most hurricane-related deaths are due to what? Get solution

17qr. Explain how a storm surge forms. How does it inflict damage in hurricane-prone areas? Get solution

18qr. Hurricanes are given names when the storm is in what stage of development? Get solution

19qr. When Hurricane Andrew moved over south Florida during August, 1992, what was it that caused the relatively small areas of extreme damage? Get solution

20qr. As Hurricane Katrina moved toward the Louisiana coast, it underwent eyewall replacement. What actually happened to the eyewall during this process? Get solution

21qr. How do meteorologists forecast the intensity and paths of hurricanes? Get solution

22qr. How does a hurricane watch differ from a hurricane warning? Get solution

23qr. Why have hurricanes been seeded with silver iodide? Get solution

24qr. Give two reasons why hurricanes are more likely to strike New Jersey than Oregon. Get solution

Chapter #10 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. What is a thunderstorm? Get solution

1qt. Why does the bottom half of a dissipating thunderstorm usually “disappear” before the top? Get solution

2qr. What atmospheric conditions are necessary for the development of ordinary cell (air mass) thunderstorms? Get solution

2qt. Sinking air warms, yet thunderstorm downdrafts are usually cold. Why? Get solution

3qr. Describe the stages of development of an ordinary cell (air mass) thunderstorm. Get solution

3qt. If you are confronted by a large tornado in an open field and there is no way that you can outrun it, your only recourse might be to run and lie down in a depression. If given the choice, when facing the tornado, would you run toward your left or toward your right as the tornado approaches? Explain your reasoning. Get solution

4qr. How do downdrafts form in ordinary cell thunderstorms? Get solution

4qt. Suppose while you are standing on a high mountain ridge a thundercloud passes overhead. What would be the wisest thing to do—stand upright? lie down? or crouch? Explain. Get solution

5qr. Why do ordinary cell thunderstorms most frequently form in the afternoon? Get solution

5qt. Tornadoes apparently form in the region of a strong updraft, yet they descend from the base of a cloud. Why? Get solution

6qr. Explain why ordinary cell thunderstorms tend to dissipate much sooner than multicell storms. Get solution

6qt. On a map of the United States, place the surface weather conditions (air masses, fronts, and so on) as well as weather conditions aloft (jet stream, and so on) that are necessary for the formation of most supercell thunderstorms. Get solution

7qr. How does the National Weather Service define a severe thunderstorm? Get solution

7qt. Suppose several of your friends went on a stormchasing adventure in the central United States. To help guide their chase, you stay behind, with an Internet-connected computer and a smart phone. Which current weather and forecast maps would you use to guide their storm chase? Explain why you choose those maps. Get solution

8qr. What atmospheric conditions are necessary for a multicell thunderstorm to form? Get solution

8qt. Get solution

9qr. (a) How do gust fronts form? (b) What type of weather does a gust front bring when it passes? Get solution

10qr. (a) Describe how a microburst forms. (b) Why is the term horizontal wind shear often used in conjunction with a microburst? Get solution

11qr. How do derechoes form? Get solution

12qr. How does a squall line differ from a Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC)? Get solution

13qr. Give a possible explanation for the generation of a pre-frontal squall-line thunderstorm. Get solution

14qr. How do supercell thunderstorms differ from ordinary cell (air mass) thunderstorms? Get solution

15qr. Describe the atmospheric conditions at the surface and aloft that are necessary for the development of most supercell thunderstorms. (Include in your answer the role that the low-level jet plays in the rotating updraft.) Get solution

16qr. When thunderstorms are training, what are they doing? Get solution

17qr. Get solution

18qr. Where does the highest frequency of thunderstorms occur in the United States? Why there? Get solution

19qr. Why is large hail more common in Kansas than in Florida? Get solution

20qr. Describe one process by which thunderstorms become electrified. Get solution

21qr. How is thunder produced? Get solution

22qr. Explain how a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke develops. Get solution

23qr. Why is it unwise to seek shelter under an isolated tree during a thunderstorm? If caught out in the open, what should you do? Get solution

24qr. What is a tornado? Give some statistics about size, wind speed, and movement. Get solution

25qr. What is the primary difference between a tornado and a funnel cloud? Get solution

26qr. Why do tornadoes frequently move from southwest to northeast? Get solution

27qr. Why should you not open windows when a tornado is approaching? Get solution

28qr. Why is the central part of the United States more susceptible to tornadoes than any other region of the world? Get solution

29qr. How does a tornado watch differ from a tornado warning? Get solution

30qr. If you are in a single-story home (without a basement) during a tornado warning, what should you do? Get solution

31qr. Supercell thunderstorms that produce tornadoes form in a region of strong vertical wind shear. Explain how the wind changes in speed and direction to produce this shear. Get solution

32qr. Explain how a nonsupercell tornado, such as a landspout, might form. Get solution

33qr. Describe how Doppler radar measures the winds inside a severe thunderstorm. Get solution

34qr. How has Doppler radar helped in the prediction of severe weather? Get solution

35qr. What atmospheric conditions lead to the formation of “fair weather” waterspouts? Get solution

Chapter #9 Solutions - Essentials of Meteorology - C Donald Ahrens - 6th Edition

1qr. What is the function of the National Center for Environmental Prediction? Get solution

1qt. What types of watches and warnings are most commonly issued for your area? Get solution

2qr. How does a weather watch differ from a weather warning? Get solution

2qt. Since computer models have difficulty in adequately considering the effects of small-scale geographic features on a weather map, why don’t numerical weather forecasters simply reduce the grid spacing to, say, 1 kilometer on all models? Get solution

3qr. How does a prog differ from an analysis? Get solution

3qt. Suppose it’s warm and raining outside. A cold front will pass your area in 3 hours. Behind the front, it is cold and snowing. Make a persistence forecast for your area 6 hours from now. Would you expect this forecast to be correct? Explain. Now, make a forecast for your area using the steady-state or trend forecasting method. Get solution

4qr. In what ways have high-speed computers assisted the meteorologist in making weather forecasts? Get solution

4qt. Why isn’t the steady-state method very accurate when forecasting the weather more than a few hours into the future? What considerations can be taken into account to improve a steady-state forecast? Get solution

5qr. How are computer-generated weather forecasts prepared? Get solution

5qt. Go outside and observe the weather. Make a weather forecast using the weather signs you observe. Explain the rationale for your forecast. Get solution

6qr. What are some of the problems associated with computer-model forecasts? Get solution

6qt. Explain how the phrase “sensitive dependence on initial conditions” relates to the final outcome of a computer-based weather forecast. Get solution

7qr. List at least four tools a weather forecaster might use when making a short-range forecast. Get solution

7qt. Suppose the chance for a “White Christmas” at your home is 10 percent. Last Christmas was a white one. If for next year you forecast a “nonwhite” Christmas, will you have shown any skill if your forecast turns out to be correct? Explain. Get solution

8qr. Get solution

8qt. Get solution

9qr. Get solution

10qr. Describe four methods of forecasting the weather and give an example for each one. Get solution

11qr. How does pattern recognition aid a forecaster in making a prediction? Get solution

12qr. Suppose that where you live, the middle of January is typically several degrees warmer than the rest of the month if u forecast this “January thaw” for the month middle of next January what type of weather forecast will you have made? Get solution

13qr. (a) look out the window and make a persistence forecast for tomorrow at this time. (b) Did you use any skill in making this prediction? Get solution

14qr. How can ensemble forecasts improve medium range forecasts? Get solution

15qr. Explain how teleconnections are used in making a long-range seasonal outlook. Get solution

16qr. If today’s weather forecast calls for a “chance of snow,” what is the percentage probability that it will snow today? (Hint: See Table 9.1, p. 263). Reference: Table 9.1: ... Get solution

17qr. Do all accurate forecasts show skill on the part of the forecaster? Explain. Get solution

18qr. List three methods that you would use to predict the movement of a surface mid-latitude cyclonic storm. Get solution

19qr. Do monthly and seasonal forecasts make specific predictions of rain or snow? Explain. Get solution